Erik Levlin

Docent, PhD



Svenska

English

Research projects

Theaching participation

  • AE2304 Water and wastewater handling, since 2013
    Compendium "Water and Waste Pipes"
  • AE2302 Water Treatment Processes since 2008
  • AE2303 Reduction of Wastewater Treatment Contribution to Global Warming 2009-2012
  • AE2301 Water and waste handling 1998-2013
  • 1B1234 VA-teknik 1998 - 2006
  • Corrosion Science 1976 - 2002
  • Högskolan Gävle since 2014
  • KTH Teknik och Design courses AF1724, AF1725 and HS1009 since 2016

Sewage sludge

Corrosion in soil

Curriculum Vitae

Personal Data

Borne year:

1951

Nationality:

Swedish

Office address:

Department of Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: +46-8-790 62 91
E-mail: levlin@kth.se

Home address:

Norr Mälarstrand 80,
112 35 Stockholm
Tel: +46-8-650 5624
Mobile: +46 707 839 625

Academic Background

M.Sc. (Bergsingenjör), 1976 School of Metallurgy and Material Science, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.

M.Sc. (Teknisk Licentiat), 1982 Dep. of Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, School of Chemistry, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.

PhD. (Teknisk doktor) 1993 Dep. of Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, School of Chemistry, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. Abstract

Associate professor, (Docent) 2008 in Environmental Engineering

Professional Experience

Ph.D-student (1976 to 1993), Assistant (1976-1982) and Course assistant in Corrosion Science (1976 - 2002) at the Dep. of Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science (Since 1993 Div. of Corrosion Science), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Investigation task (November 1983 to May 1984) at the National Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.

Research work Since 1986, Division of Water Resources Engineering, from 2001 Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, from 2013 Department of Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Environmental Investigator (August 2002 to January 2003) for the Governement of Åland, Mariehamn.

Researcher (2008-2016) IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute


Publications

Environment and Sewage sludge

2016:
Levlin, E. & Plaza, E. Fosforåtervinning från avloppsrening med sidoströmshydrolys TRITA-LWR Report, 2016:01

Levlin, E., Thus, K. & Lüdtke, M., C. Economical process for power to biogas with use of an ordinary sewage sludge digester. 2nd IWA Conference on Holistic Sludge Management June 7-9, 2016 Malmö poster

Lüdtke, M., Berg, M., Berg, S., Baresel, C., Söhr, S., Bengtsson, L., & Levlin, E. Rötning med integrerad slamförtjockning för ökad biogasproduktion SVU rapport, 2016-06

2015:
Trela, J., Plaza, E., Yang, J. & Levlin, E. Nitritation/anammox-processen för rejektvattenbehandling SVU rapport, 2015-01

Yang, J., Trela, J., Plaza, E., Wahlberg, O. & Levlin, E. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a control parameter in a single-stage partial nitritation/anammox process treating reject water Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology DOI

2014:
Baresel, C., Lüdtke, M., Levlin, E., Fortkamp, U. & Ekengren, Ö. Slamavvattning i kommunala reningsverk Nuläget, begränsningar och perspektiv IVL Rapport B2188

Levlin, E. Förbehandling av bioslam för ökad biogasproduktion och Uppgradering av biogas TRITA-LWR Report, 2014:05

Levlin, E., Tjus, K., Fortkamp, U., Ek, M., Baresel, C., Palm, O. & Ljung E. Metoder för fosforåtervinning ur avloppsslam IVL Rapport B2184

2013:
Fortkamp, U., Baresel, C., Westling, K., Ek, M., Junestedt, C., Johansson, C., Levlin, E. Increased treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment by use of waste heat. Trettonde Nordiska Avloppskonferensen NordIWA, 8-10 oktober 2013, Malmö

Levlin, E. & Bengtsson, L. EXERT extended sludge retention process with sludge recirculation to increase biogas production IWA Specialist Conference Holistic Sludge Management 6-8 May 2013 Västerås Sweden

Tomczak-Wandzel, R., Levlin, E., Ekengren, Ö. & Baresel, C. Biogas production from fish wastes in co-digestion with sewage sludge IWA Specialist Conference Holistic Sludge Management 6-8 May 2013 Västerås Sweden.

2012:
Levlin, E. Extended solids retention process for increasing biogas production at anaerobic digestion 2 International Congress Environment Protection, Energy saving, Sustainable Environmental Management. Lviv, Ukraine, 19-22 september 2012.

2011:
Levlin E. Maximizing biogas production and phosphorus recovery by ion exchange, Cities of the Future Stockholm May 22-25, 2011 poster

Levlin E., Bengtsson L. & Baresel C. Anaerobic contact reactor with sludge recirculation to increase biogas production. 12th Nordic Wastewater Conference Helsinki Finland November 14-16, 2011 poster

Baresel, C., Ek, M., Ekengren, Ö., Levlin, E., Bengtsson, L., Trela, J. & Plaza, E. Hammarby Sjöstadsverk. Uppstart av Försöks- och Demonstrationsanläggningen för Framtidens Kommunala VA-Teknik IVL Rapport B1954

2010:
Levlin E. Maximering av slam och biogasproduktion för att motverka global uppvärmning (Maximazing sludge and biogas production for counteracting global warming) Vatten 66(1): 67-73 paper.

Levlin E. Maximazing sludge and biogas production for counteracting global warming. International scientific seminar, Research and application of new technologies in wastewater treatment and municipal solid waste disposal in Ukraine, Sweden and Poland 23-25 september 2009 Stockholm , Report No 16. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3026, ISBN 978-91-7415-523-5, pp. 95-104 paper.

Levlin E. Conductivity measurements for controlling municipal wastewater treatment, International scientific seminar, Research and application of new technologies in wastewater treatment and municipal solid waste disposal in Ukraine, Sweden and Poland 26-28 October 2007 Ostron Poland, Report No 15. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3024, ISBN 978-91-7415-412-2, pp. 51-62 paper.

2009:
Ekengren, Ö., Cvetkovic, V., Baresel, C., Hultman, B., Levlin, E. (2009): Hammarby Sjöstadsverket - Long-term collaboration between researchers, sewage treatment plants and industry to meet future challenges within wastewater treatment. The 11th Nordic Wastewater Conference Odense Denmark 10-12 November 2009.

Levlin E. Nutrient removal without carbon source for achieving maximum biogas production and P recovery. 2nd IWA Specialized Conferens nutrient management in wastewater treatment processes, Proceedings pp. 1161-1163.

Levlin E., Hassanzadeh, R., Soh, R.A. Hultman, B. & Plaza, E. A pilot-plant research facility in Stockholm - Possibilities to test new treatment processes as magnesium salt addition to meet requirements for the future. 2nd IWA Specialized Conferens nutrient management in wastewater treatment processes, Proceedings pp. 1159-1160.

2008:
Trela, J., Plaza, E., Hultman, B., Cema, G., Bosander, J. & Levlin, E. Utvärdering av enstegsprocess för deammonifikation (Evaluation of one-stage deammonification), Svenskt Vatten Utveckling Rapport Nr 2008-18. rapport

Levlin E. & Hultman B. Konduktivitetsmätningar som mät- och kontrollmetod vid kommunala avloppsanläggningar (Conductivity measurements as measure and control method for municipal wastewater treatment), Svenskt Vatten Utveckling Rapport Nr 2008-04, 51 pages, report.

2007:
Levlin E. Phosphorus recovery with acid and base from inorganic sewage sludge residues. Water Practice & Technology Vol. 2, No 1, doi10.2166/wpt.2007.0018, abstract.

Levlin E. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge - Two-step leaching process with acid and base, Proceedings of Polish-Swedish seminars Krakow March 17-19, 2005, Report No 13. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3018, ISBN 978-91-7178-826-9, pp. 71-80 paper.

Levlin E. & Hultman B. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge - Ideas for further studies to improve leaching, Proceedings of Polish-Swedish seminars Stockholm June 5-9, 2004, Report No 12. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3017, ISBN 978-91-7178-825-2, pp. 61-70 paper.

2006:
Levlin E.
Phosphorus recovery with acid and base from inorganic sewage sludge residues. IWA Specialized Conference - Sustainable sludge management. 29-31 May 2006 Moscow Russia, Proceedings, ISBN-5-9900677-2-0, pp. 612-619, abstract.

2005:
Levlin E., Hultman B. & Löwén M. Tvåstegslakning med syra och bas för fosforutvinning ur slam efter superkritisk vattenoxidation eller förbränning VA-forsk (Two-step leaching with acid and base for phosphorus recovery of sludge after supercritical water oxidation or incineration), VA-forsk 2005-12, 29 pages, report.

2004:
Hultman B., Levlin E., Löwén M., Plaza E. & Trela J. Samverkan mellan avloppsvattenrening och slambehandling (Interactions between wastewater and sludge treatment), VA-forsk 2004-15, 29 pages, report.

Levlin E. Sustainable and integrated sewage and organic waste handling with global warming impact, a case study of Åland and energy recovery by SCWO or anaerobic digestion. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Wisla Poland, October 25-18, 2003, Report No 11. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3007, ISBN 91-7283-664-4, pp. 1-8, paper.

Levlin E., Löwén M. & Stark K. Lakning av slamrest från förbränning och superkritisk vattenoxidation, (Leaching of sludge residue from incineration and supercritical water oxidation) VA-Forsk, 2004-03, 27 pages, report.

Levlin E., Löwén M. & Stark K. Phosphorus recovery from sludge incineration ash and Supercritical Water Oxidation residues with use of acids and bases. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Wisla Poland, October 25-18, 2003, Report No 11. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3007, ISBN 91-7283-664-4, pp. 19-28 paper.

Levlin E. & Stark K. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge after incineration or Supercritical Water Oxidation. The first Conference on the Volarization of Phosphates and Phosphorous Compounds COVAPHOS 1, Marrakech Morroco, October 11-13, 2004, Abstracts, O6-03, pp. 262-264.

2003:
Hultman B. & Levlin E. Minskning av skumningsproblem och slammängd i rötkammare (Reduction of foaming problems and sludge volumes in digestion chambers) TRITA-LWR.REPORT 3005, Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, ISBN 91-7283-634-2 report.

Hultman B. Levlin E. & Plaza E. Part C, Chapter 17: Resources Management and technology of clean water, Environmental Science, A Baltic University Publication, Uppsala University, ISBN 91-970017-0-8, pp. 505-533.

Hultman B., Levlin E., Plaza E. & Stark K. Phosphorus recovery from sludge in Sweden - possibilities to meet proposed goals in an efficient, sustainable and economical way. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Gdansk Poland, March 23-25, 2003, Report No 10. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3004, ISBN 91-7283-471-4, pp. 19-28, paper.

Kapilashrami S., Cederwall K. & Levlin E. Exceptional flood and water quality.
Vatten, Vol 59, No. 3, pp. 191-198.

Levlin E. Bedömning av utsläpp av växthusgaser och andra luftföroreningar på Åland. (Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants on Åland)
Åländsk utredningsserie 2003:2, ISSN 0357-735X, report.

Levlin E. & Hultman B. Phosphorus recovery from phosphate rich side-streams in wastewater treatment plants Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Gdansk Poland, March 23-25, 2003, Report No 10. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA.LWR REPORT 3004,
ISBN 91-7283-471-4, pp. 47-56, paper.

2002:
Balmér P., Book K., Hultman B., Jönsson H., Kärrman E., Levlin E., Palm O., Schönning C., Seger A., Stark K., Söderberg H., Tiderström H. & Åberg H. System för återanvändning av fosfor ur avlopp. (System for recovery of phosphorus from sewage) Statens Naturvårdsverk Rapport 5221, report.

Hultman B., Levlin E., Löwén M., Mossakowska A. & Stark K. Utvinning av fosfor och andra produkter ur slam och aska, Slutrapport. (Extraction of phosphorus and other products from sludge and ashes, Final report) Stockholm Vatten AB, R nr 02, feb 2002, report.

Levlin E., Löwén M., Stark K. & Hultman B. Effects of phosphorus recovery requirements on Swedish sludge management. Water Science Technology Vol 46, No. 4-5, pp. 435-440, abstract.

Stark K., Hultman B., Levlin E., Löwén M. & Mossakowska A. Calculation of chemical needs in combined phosphorus removal and recovery at Henriksdal WWTP, Sweden. 3:d World Water Congress of IWA, Melbourne, Australien 7-12 april 2002, poster.

Stark K., Hultman B. & Levlin E. New system technology for combined phosphorus removal and recovery. 3:d World Water Congress of IWA Melbourne, Australien 7-12 april 2002, poster.

2001:
Hultman B., Levlin E., Löwén M., Mossakowska A. & Stark K. Utvinning av fosfor och andra produkter ur slam och aska, delrapport, (Extraction of phosphorus and other products from sludge and ashes) Stockholm Vatten AB, R. Nr 6 mars 2001, 78 pages, report.

Hultman B., Levlin E., Mossakowska A. & Stark K. Effects of wastewater treatment technology on phosphorus recovery from sludges and ashes. 2 nd international Conference on Recovery of phosphates from sewage and animal wastes, Noordwijkerhout Netherlands March 12-13, 2001, paper, abstract.

Levlin E. Recovery of phosphate and separation of metals by ion exchange Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Nowy Targ Poland, October 24-26, 2001, Report No 9. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports,TRITA-AMI REPORT 3088, ISBN 91-7283-190-1, pp. 81-90.

Levlin E., Löwén M., Stark K. & Hultman B. Effects of phosphorus recovery requirements on Swedish sludge management. 2nd World Water Congress of IWA Berlin Germany, October 15–18, 2001, OH, abstract.

Levlin E., Tideström H., Kapilashrami S., Stark K. & Hultman B. Slamkvalitet och trender för slamhantering. (Sludge quality and trends for sludge management) VA-forsk 2001-05, ISBN 91-89182-56-1, 70 pages, report.

Stark K., Hultman B., Mossakowska A. & Levlin E. Kemikaliebehov vid fosforutvinning ur avloppsslam. (Demand of chemicals for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge) Vatten Vol 57, No 3, pp. 207-215.

Wikberg A., Palm O., Eriksson L., Hultman B., Levlin E., & Thyselius L. Förädling av rötrest från biogasanläggningar. RVF Utveckling. Rapport 01:9, ISSN 1404-4471.

2000:
Hultman B., Levlin E., & Stark K. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludges: Research and experiences in Nordic Countries, Scope Newsletter CEEP, No 41, 2000, pp. 29-32

Hultman B., Levlin E., & Stark K. Swedish debate on sludge handling. Sustainable municipal sludge and solid waste handling. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Krakow, May 29, 2000, Report No 7. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3073,
ISBN 91-7170-584-8, pp. 1-16, paper.

Levlin E. & Kapilashrami S. Sludge quality in Sweden – Inquiry results for year 1995 to 1997, Sustainable municipal sludge and solid waste handling. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Krakow, May 29, 2000, Report No 7. Joint Polish - Swedish Reports,
TRITA-AMI REPORT 3073, ISBN 91-7170-584-8, pp. 17-27, paper.

Levlin E., Löwén M., Schmidt E., Hultman B. & Mossakowska A. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. 1 st World Water Congress of IWA, Paris, 2000.07.03-07.06, CD-ROM, ISBN 2-9515416-0-0 EAN: 9782951541603, abstract, poster.

1999:
Hultman B., Levlin E., Plaza E. & Trela J. Sludge handling at Nowy Targ wastewater treatment plant, Poland - Evaluation and recommendations for improvements. Report No. 6, Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3064, ISBN 91-7170-444-2. 69 pages.

Levlin E. Resources recovery from incineration ashes, Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar Stockholm August 24, 1999, Report No. 5, Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3063, ISBN 91-7170-439-6. pp. 43-53, paper.

Lundin L. C. (editor) with 24 authors, 2 Water Use and Management, Sustainable Water Management in the Baltic Sea Basin, Baltic University Programme, Uppsala University, ISBN: 91-973579-4-4. Participated in Part I Sustainability and Water Management kapitel chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and Part III Urban Water Use and Management 13, 14, 15 and 16 (table of content).

1998:
Hultman B., Levlin E., Plaza E. & Trela J., Ideas for future sludge management at the Nowy Targ WWTP. Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar, Nowy Targ Poland, October 1-2, 1998. Report No. 3, Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3048, ISBN 91-7170-324-1. pp. 83-94. (Polish version: ISBN 83-906046-1-2, pp.93-105), abstract, paper.

Levlin E. Sustainable sludge handling – Metal removal and phosphorus recovery, Advanced Wastewater reatment Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar, Nowy Targ Poland, October 1-2, 1998, Report No. 3, Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3048, ISBN 91-7170-324-1. pp. 73-81 (Polish version: ISBN 83-906046-1-2, pp. 83-92), abstract, paper.

Levlin E., Löwén M., Schmidt E., Hultman B. & Mossakowska A. Fosforutvinning ur aska. (Phosphorus recovery from ash) Stockholm Vatten AB, R. Nr 54 nov-98, 32 pages.

1997:
Hultman B. & Levlin E. Sustainable sludge handling. Paper 5: Advanced Wastewater Treatment Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar, Stockholm May 30, 1997, Report No. 2, Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3044, ISBN 91-7170-283-0, paper.

Hultman B. & Levlin E. Vattenförsörjning till områden med vattenbrist. (Water supply to water scarce regions) Bilaga 4: Vattenexport, Förstudie av möjlig framtida export av färskvatten i stor skala från Sverige och Finland.

Hultman B., Levlin E., Löwén M. & Mossakowska M. Uthållig Slamhantering. Förstudie. (Sustainable Sludge Handling. Prestudy) Stockholm Vatten AB, R. Nr 23 sept-97, Stockholm Water Ltd. 57 pages.

1996:
Levlin E., Westlund L. & Hultman B. Rening av avloppsslam från tungmetaller och organiska miljöfarliga ämnen. (Removal of heavy metals and toxic organic contaminants from sewage sludge) VA–forsk 1996-08, ISSN 1102-5638, ISBN 91-88392-99-6, report.

Corrosion and Material

2000:
Levlin E. & Vinka T.-G. Corrosion in an urban soil profile - Aeration cell experiment In situ in the soil. Eurocorr 2000, London, 2000.09.10-09.14, CD-ROM, presentation, abstract.

1996:
Levlin E. Aeration cell corrosion of carbon steel in soil: In situ monitoring cell current and potential. Corrosion Science, Vol. 38, No. 12, pp 2083-2090, abstract, paper.

Lubarski V., Levlin E. & Koroleva. E. Endurance test of aluminous cement produced from water treatment sludge. Vatten, Vol. 52, No. 1, ISSN 0042-2886, pp. 39-42.

1995:
Levlin E. Corrosion of copper in anaerobic clay. Prerequisites for pitting and whiskers formation. SKB Projekt Inkapsling, Projekt PM PPM 95–3420–09, report.

1994:
Levlin E. Corrosion of water pipes in soil due to acidification of soil and groundwater, Municipal and rural water supply and water quality, Poznan, Polen August 31 to September 2, 1994, ISBN 83–902173–0–9, pp 551-560.

1993:
Levlin E. Inverkan av pH på kuprosolvens i hårt vatten. Försök utförda vid Uppsala gatukontor. (Influence of pH on cuprosolvensy in hard waters. Tests made at Uppsala gatukontor) TRITA–VAT 1931, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, main report and six enclosures (project webb page).

Levlin E. Material deterioration at different process conditions in waste deposits - Prestudy Report to Avfallsforskningsrådet, AFR, Område 4 Miljöanpassad deponeringsteknik, Diarienr. 314, dossienr. 230.

1992:
Kapilashrami S. & Levlin E. Asbestfibrer i dricksvatten, tekniska åtgärder. (Asbets fibres in drinking water, technical measures) Delrapport–B, korrosion och åtgärdsförslag. TRITA-VAT-1903, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 37 pages.

Levlin E. Corrosion of water pipe systems due to acidification of soil and groundwater. Doctors thesis in Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, KTH, (Supervisor Einar Mattsson and examinator Daniel Simonsson) TRITA-TEK 1992:01, ISBN 91-7170-094-3, 30+96 pages, abstract.

Levlin E. Corrosion by aeration cells in soil - Laboratory investigation of the influence of acid rain. 12:th Scandinavian Corrosion Congress & Eurocorr 92, Esbo, Finland June 1 to 4 1992, ISBN 951-96485-0-X, Vol II, pp 383–392.

Levlin E. Corrosion by aeration cells in soil – Laboratory investigation of the influence of acid rain. TRITA-VAT 3921, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, (doctor thesis paper V).

1991:
Levlin E. Corrosion of underground structures due to acidification: laboratory investigation. British Corrosion Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp 36 - 66, (doctor thesis paper IV).

Levlin E. Kuprosolvens i hårda vatten. (Cuprosolvensy in hard waters) TRITA-VAT-4911, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, report.

Levlin E. Korrosion på vattenledningsrör i mark. (Corrosion of water pipes in soil)
Bygg & Teknik, No. 5, August, pp 42–44.

Levlin E. Corrosion of cast-iron in soil - Discussion of two theories, Especially with respect to the H2S/Fe2+-ratio. TRITA–VAT–4912, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, (doctor thesis paper VI).

Levlin E. & Kapilashrami S. External corrosion of concrete pipes in soil water environment. Influence of acidification caused by air pollution. TRITA-VAT-1901, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 51 pages.

1990:
Levlin E. Laboratory investigation on corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification. UN Economic Commision of Europe, workshop Sigtuna, Sweden May 29 to 31, 1989, Nordic Councils of Ministers, Miljörapport 1990:9 ISBN 87-7303-475-4, ISBN 91-7996-261-0, pp 141-149.

1989:
Levlin E. Laboratory investigation on corrosion of underground pipes due to acidification. 11:th Scandinavian Corrosion Congress, Stavanger, Norway, June 19 to 21, 1989, F-43, 4 pages, poster.

1988:
Levlin E. Jordkorrosion - modellförsök på laboratorium. (Corrosion in soil - Laboratory model experiment) Korrosion på jordförlagda VA-ledningar, Seminar of Swedish Water and Wastewater Works Association, December 3, 1987, Stockholm, Sweden, VAV meddelande M63, ISSN 0347-1802, pp 14 - 17.

Levlin E. Kartläggning av försurningsbetingad korrosion av vattenledningsrör i mark - Skadefrekvensanalys. (Corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification - Damage frequency analysis) TRITA-VAT-3884, Water Resources Engineering, KTH, (English version as doctor thesis paper III).

1986:
Levlin E. Corrosion of water pipes due to acidification of natural waters. 10:th Scandinavian Corrosion Congr. Stockholm, Sweden, June 2 to 4, 1986, Swedish Corrosion Institute, bulletin nr 101, pp 421-426. (doctor thesis paper I)

1985:
Levlin E. Försurningsbetingade korrosionsskador på vattenledningar i hus och mark. (Acidification dependent corrosion damage of water pipes in houses and soil) Naturvårdsverkets rapport, SNV pm 1978, National Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 34 pages.

1984:
Levlin E., Klinga Å. & Millinger K. Inverkan av miljöparametrar på tendensen till punktkorrosion hos rostfria stål. (Influence of environmental parameters on the tendency for pitting of stainless steel) Jernkontorets forskning, serie D, Nr 498, Slutrapport för forskningsuppgift 4388/81.

1983:
Levlin E. Critical pitting temperatures by a austenitic and a ferriticaustenitic stainless steel. 9:th Scandinavian Corrosion Congress, Köpenhamn, Denmark, September 12 to 14, 1983, ISBN 87-981467-1-8, pp 31-42.

1982:
Levlin E. Gropfrätningens temperaturberoende hos rostfria stål. (Temperature dependence of pitting of stainless steel) Licentiate thesis in Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, KTH (examinator and supervisor Gösta Wranglén), 118 pages.

1981:
Levlin E. Gropfrätning i rostfritt stål är temperaturberoende. (Pitting of stainless steel is temperature dependent) Verkstadstidningen, No 11. pp 36-37, November.

Levlin E. Tentamensuppgifter i korrosionslära, AK 1977-1979 med lösningar. Skriftserie Korrosion och metallskydd, No 29, Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, KTH.

1975:
Levlin E. & Levlin O. Varmduktilitet hos austenitiska rostfria stål. (Hot ductility at austenitic stainless steel) Master thesis work in Metallography, KTH (examinator Mats Hillert) made at Avesta Jernverks AB (supervisor Mats Lilja), 118 pages.


Abstracts


Phosphorus recovery with acid and base from inorganic sewage sludge residues.

Levlin E.

Phosphate recovery from sludge incineration ash and sludge residues from Super Critical Water Oxidation, SCWO through leaching with acid HCl and base NaOH was studied. Leaching with base gives a selective dissolution of phosphorus but a low degree of recovery compared to leaching with acid. The high per cent of leached phosphorus compared to leached metals at leaching with acid, and the lower cost for acid makes leaching with acid less expensive. The cost for HCl is estimated to 0.32 Euro/kg P and upward. Since calcium may bind phosphorus at leaching with base, a two step process was tested. A first leaching step with acid at pH-level 4 to dissolve calcium was followed by a second leaching step with base. Two step leaching gave more leaching of phosphate, however, not as high as for leaching with acid. The cost for chemicals for two step leaching was estimated to 1.2 Euro/kg P and upward.

Presentation at IWA Specialized Conference - Sustainable sludge management, 29-31 May 2006 Moscow Russia and published in Water Practice & Technology Vol. 2, No 1, 2007.


Effects of phosphorus recovery requirements on Swedish sludge management

Levlin E., Löwén M., Stark K. and Hultman B.

Expected requirements of phosphorus recovery, restrictions of sludge disposal on landfill, and difficulties to obtain consensus on sludge use on agricultural land has led to several development works in Sweden to change sludge management methods. Especially sludge fractionation has gained interest including following steps to recover products and separate transfer of toxic substances into a small stream. Commercial systems are offered based on technology by Cambi/KREPRO and BioCon and other companies and many other methods are under development. Iron salts are widely used in Sweden as precipitation agents for phosphorus removal and this technology has some disadvantages for phosphorus recovery compared with the use of biological phosphorus removal. The amount of chemicals needed for a KREPRO or a Biocon system was calculated for a treatment plant which has an addition of iron salt resulting in 1900 mole Fe per tonne DS. The result was compared with the chemical consumption of recovery systems installed at plants with lower use of iron for precipitation. The chemical consumption in equivalents per tonne DS was found to be 5000 + 6000 * (molar ratio iron to phosphorus).

Presentation at 2nd World Water Congress of IWA Berlin Germany, October 15 - 18, 2001 (OH) and
published in Water Science and Technology Vol 46, No. 4–5, pp. 435–440, 2002.


EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY ON PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SLUDGES AND ASHES

Bengt Hultman, Erik Levlin, Agnes Mossakowska and Kristina Stark

Sweden and several other countries have a long tradition in phosphorus removal to protect the recipient from eutrophication. Traditions, availability of cheap precipitation agents and possibilities to reach very low effluent values of total phosphorus in combination with stringent requirements has led to the use, in Sweden, of chemical precipitation as the main method for phosphorus removal. Phosphorus is at present removed in an efficient and reliable way and more concern is now directed towards recycling of phosphorus as a limiting substance and risks of leakage of phosphorus to the recipient from deposits. A national goal has been set up by the Swedish government that 75% of phosphorus in wastes should be recovered.

Problems related to phosphorus recycling by use of sludge in agriculture have led to the development of technologies to produce phosphorus products. In the Nordic countries, companies as BioCon, Cambi, Kemira, and Purac have worked out different solutions and are now offering phosphorus recovery for full scale applications. The systems are discussed based on the necessary use of chemicals and it is shown that the sludge composition has a major influence. Some modifications of present process technology are discussed for the largest treatment plant in Stockholm, Henriksdal, to meet the combined requirement of efficient phosphorus removal and recovery.

Oral presentation at 2nd international Conference on Recovery of phosphates from sewage and animal wastes, Noordwijkerhout Netherlands March 12-13, 2001 (paper).

CORROSION IN AN URBAN SOIL PROFILE
AERATION CELL EXPERIMENT IN SITU IN THE SOIL


Erik Levlin and

Tor-Gunnar Vinka

Aeration cell corrosion has been studied in situ in the soil at a test site in Göteborg, Sweden. The test site was also used for other projects studying groundwater and soil properties and their effects on the corrosion of metals in soil. Aeration cells have in previous work been studied by laboratory experiments. In this project ten aeration cells consisting of two carbon steel sheets each, connected together with a cable, was buried at a depth of 1 meter. The anodic sheets was buried in a lump of clay, and the cathodic was buried in the surrounding filling material. Two types of aeration cells were used, one with a cathodic sheet of the same size as the anodic sheets, and an other with a cathodic sheet being 10 times larger. The anode-cathode area ratio of the cells were 1:1 and 1:10. Four aeration cell was taken up after 1.085 year and the other after 2.685 year. For reference also sheets without connection to any aeration cells were exposed to the soil. After exposure weight loss and pitting depth was measured on all sheets

On two aeration cells corrosion current and potential was measured during the 2.685 year test period. As a reference the corrosion potential of sheets with no connection to any aeration cells were measured. The corrosion of the anodic sheets in clay can be calculated from the measured cell current to 31.7 µm/year (2.59 µA/cm²) for the cell with area ratio 10 and 5.0 µm/year (0.47 µA/cm²) with area ratio 1. The difference in cell current between the cells increased with time; from about three times larger in the beginning to about eight. This can be explained by deposition of corrosion products on the cathodic sheet, causing a larger part of the anodic dissolution to be transferred to the anodic sheet. The difference in cell current will be 10 with no corrosion of the cathodic sheets and 1.82 with the same corrosion rates on both anodic and cathodic sheets.

Weight loss measurement showed a corrosion rate on the anode in the clay of 0.033 mm/year with a smal cathode and 0.0514 mm/year with a large and a corrosion rate on cathode in the filling material of 5.6 µm/year with a smal cathode and 8.2 µm/year with a large. Sheet exposed without connection had a corrosion rate of about 0.013 mm/year in both clay and filling material. For sheets without connection the corrosion was almoust the same in clay and in filling material (about 0.013 mm/year). The pitting corrosion was much higher on unconnected sheets in the filling material (about 0.6 mm/year) compared to sheets in the clay (0.07 mm/year). Connecting the sheets together to aeration cells made the pitting corrosioin of the anode to increase (0.257 mm/year) and of the cathode to decrease (0.3 mm/year). This can be explained with that the rate of corrosion in clay is limited by diffusion of oxygen through the water saturated clay and in the filling material by precipitation of corrosion products on the surface. The corrosion of the sheets in the filling material is therefore higher on spots there the layer of corrosion products are weaken which givs pitting corrosion. Connecting the sheet to an areation cells moves the anodic reaction to the the sheet in the clay which are not protected by corrosion products and the pitting corrosion ot the cathode decreases. The cathodic reaction of the sheets in the filling material occures on the magnetite layer deposited close to the metal surface.

Oral presentation at Eurocorr 2000 London UK, September 10-14, 2000 (Paper).


PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION ASH

Erik Levlin, Monica Löwén, Eva Schmidt, Bengt Hultman and Agnes Mossakowska

The objective was to study the possibility for phosphorus recovery from ash obtained from co-incineration of sludge with solid waste in a grate oven and with biofuel in a fluidized bed reactor. Incinerated sludge and ash from co-incineration with solid waste and biofuel were leached with hydrochloric acid at different concentrations and contact time. Leaching with 1M HCl or higher concen­trations and during 8 hours gave more than 75 % dissolution of phosphorus. Metal contents of ash from the co-incinerations and in the leachate were measured and the ratio between metal and phosphorus was calculated. The ratio was higher for ash and leachate than for the sludge. For almost all metals the ratio for ash was higher than the limit for sludge approved for agricultural use.

Poster at 1st World Water Congress of IWA, Paris France, July 3-7, 2000.


Sustainable sludge handling – Metal removal and phosphorus recovery

Erik Levlin

Sustainable sludge handling means recycling of resources without supply of harmful substances to humans or the environment. An important resource is nutrients which can be utilised through using sludge as fertiliser in the agriculture. Thus, the harmful substances such as heavy metals in the sludge must be minimised through source control. Otherwise, harmful metals such as chromium can be removed from the sludge by leaching methods. Alternatively, the nutrients can be recovered and used as fertiliser. Phosphate fertiliser is produced by mining of phosphate ores, and the supply may become crucial. Phosphate removed biologically from the wastewater can be recovered from the supernatant after digestion by precipitation as struvite, magnesium ammonium phsophate. Phosphate removed chemically as metal phosphate must be leached from the sludge. Thermal hydrolyse is in the KREPRO project used to fractionate the sludge and in the Cambi process used to increase the efficiency in the digestion. To avoid waste disposal, the inorganic content of the sludge can be used for production of building material. (page 73-81, paper)

Ideas for future sludge management at the Nowy Targ WWTP

Bengt Hultman, Erik Levlin, Elzbieta Plaza and Józef Trela

The wastewater treatment plant in Nowy Targ is based on sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology. The plant operates with biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and stabilisation of the sludge is performed in the reactors. The stabilisation is not efficient to produce a stable sludge and several odour problems are obtained. In addition, the sludge has a high chromium content and poor dewatering properties. A land deposit will be used for final disposal of the sludge. Different options are discussed to improve the sludge handling at Nowy Targ including better control of the tannery industries, methods to improve stabilisation and to control odour problems, volume reduction of the sludge and product recovery. (page 83-94, paper)

Collaboration project with Cracow Technical University and city of Nowy Targ, Poland.
Published in: Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Report No 3, Stockholm 1998
Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish Seminar, Nowy Targ, Poland, October 1-2, 1998.
Joint Polish - Swedish Reports, Water Resources Engineering, Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm, Sweden, TRITA-AMI REPORT 3048, ISBN: 91-7170-324-1.

Polish translation:
NOWY TARG - forum wspólpracy polsko-szwedzkiej w ochronie wód, Eksploatacja i badania oczyszczalni scieków SBR, ISBN-83-906046-1-2.


Aeration cell corrosion of carbon steel in soil:
In situ monitoring cell current and potential

Erik Levlin

Aeration cell corrosion in soil has been studied in situ in the soil at a test site in Göteborg, Sweden. An aeration cell consisted of two carbon steel sheets buried at a depth of 1 meter. The anodic sheet was buried in a lump of clay, and the cathodic was buried in the surrounding filling material. Two aeration cells were used, one with a cathodic sheet of the same size as the anodic sheets, and an other with a cathodic sheet being 10 times larger. The anode-cathode area ratio of the cells were 1:1 and 1:10. Both corrosion current and potential was measured during the 2.67 year test period. As a reference the corrosion potential of sheets with no connection to any aeration cells were measured. The corrosion of the anodic sheets in clay can be calculated from the cell current to 31.7 µm/year (2.59 µA/cm²) for the cell with area ratio 10 and 5.0 µm/year (0.47 µA/cm²) with area ratio 1. The difference in cell current between the cells increased with time; from about three times larger in the beginning to about eight. This can be explained by deposition of corrosion products on the cathodic sheet, causing a larger part of the anodic dissolution to be transferred to the anodic sheet. The difference in cell current will be 10 with no corrosion of the cathodic sheets and 1.82 with the same corrosion rates on both anodic and cathodic sheets.

The work is a part of a larger project together with Geology at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, and the Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm, financed by BFR, the Swedish Council for Building Research.

Published in Corrosion Science Vol. 38, No. 12, page 2083-2090, 1996, Paper.


Doctor thesis

Corrosion of water pipe systems due to acidification of soil and groundwater

Erik Levlin

The acidification of soil and groundwater have given riseto the question if acidification of the soil may increase the corrosion of water pipe systems. As the problem is very complex, the primary purpose has been to get an overview of different effects on the corrosion environment, the corrosion process and its consequences.

The influence of acidification on the external corrosion of pipes buried in the soil, was studied in a damage frequency analysis, but no connection was found. The corrosion in soil appears to be mainly dependent on other factors than acidification, such as the type of soil.

With respect to the position of the pipe in the soil three cases can be distinguished:
(i) Pipes in aerobic soil high above the groundwater level suffer from corrosion due to rich oxygen supply. The corrosion is, however stifled by precipitation of iron oxides. (ii) Pipes in anaerobic soil below the groundwater level may corrode due to absence of protective corrosion products. However, depending on the H2S/Fe2+-ratio a protective layer of FeS may precipitate. (iii) On pipes just above the groundwater level corrosion by the action of aeration cells may occur due to good oxygen supply combined with a fairly low resistivity.

Laboratory experiments simulating aeration cell corrosion were carried out with two parallel cells, of which one was sprayed with acidified and the other with non-acidified water. The aeration cell was created by inserting two electrodes of cast-iron in a box, the anode in clay and the cathode in sand. Acidification increased the leaching in the cell which caused the resistivity in the sand above the groundwater level to increase, while the resistivity below the groundwater level decreased. In some cases the corrosion thereby increased while in other cases it decreased. The geometry of the cell, especially the location of the cathode, determined whether the corrosion would increase or decrease due to acidification.

In another investigation the geographical distribution of corrosion induced water damages was compared with the distribution of acidification effects, and a significant correlation was observed. Due to changes in the supply water quality, primarily the pH-value, the alkalinity and the sulphate content, the acidification of the groundwater may lead to increased internal corrosion of water pipe installations in buildings.

Defended January 29 1993 at dep. of Applied Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden. TRITA-TEK 1992:01, ISBN 91-7170-094-3